6 Common Types of Urine Tests

A key focus of my blog is STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). Urine tests are a critical tool in the medical sciences and forensics. Certain illnesses can be detected and identified through urine tests in addition to the presence of pharmaceuticals, illegal drugs and toxins. The following contributed post is entitled, 6 Common Types of Urine Tests.

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When it comes to testing for diseases, urine has special prominence as the ideal specimen. This is because it has a specific composition, and foreign substances usually point to particular ailments. For instance, excessive protein in the urine, known as proteinuria, often indicates heart issues or poor kidney function.

Urine samples can be collected in various ways for specific tests. Here is all you need to know about the standard urine tests and what ailments and conditions they point to.

6 Common Types of Urine Tests

1. Random Urine Tests

As the name suggests, these tests are done without any prior scheduling. They are typical during routine testing, especially before a patient is admitted to the hospital or before surgery. Some random urine tests, like rapid tests, can even be carried out at home.

Rapid urine tests generally come as strips that change color depending on the specimen’s chemical composition. You can then interpret the results using the table that usually accompanies the test. Although you can carry out the test on your own, it is best to seek a trained medical professional’s opinion and advice.

These tests indicate the presence of various substances in the urine, including such compounds as bilirubin, proteins, sugar, urinary casts, and ketones. These substances are not usually present in urine, and their presence usually indicates that a part of the body is malfunctioning.

For instance, urinary casts, which are cylindrical solids in urine, indicate a problem with the kidneys’ renal tubes. On the other hand, high cholesterol levels show that a patient has excessive amounts of this unhealthy substance.

2. First Morning Urine Tests

These tests are also called 8-hour urine tests. The first urine sample of the day is used for these tests. They are typically more accurate than random urine tests since they tend to be more concentrated, having stayed in the bladder for a longer time.

3. Mid-Stream Clean Catch Urine Tests

Mid-stream clean catch tests are used to collect urine under sterile conditions, which is then tested for germs. The patient starts by cleaning the genital area using water or antiseptic wet wipes to perform the test. Then, they begin emptying the bladder into the toilet, pause midway, collect the mid-sample in a sterile container and then finish voiding in the bathroom.

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To create a bacteria culture, a medium on which bacteria can grow, like glass, is placed in the collected urine. The sample is placed in an incubator for two to four days. By four days, any bacteria in the urine will have started to form colonies that a Urine Collector can identify.

4. 24-hour Urine Tests

With these tests, the patient collects all their urine for 24 hours and then submits it for a laboratory test. However, the first urine of the day is usually not included in the tests. Instead, the urine sample for the period after the 24 hours is collected and used for testing.

24-hour urine tests are virtually the best for indicating how much of each substance is contained in a patient’s urine. Whether it is excessive amounts of salt, protein, or white blood cells, the 24-hour urine test can shed more light on what is ailing a patient. Some common diseases tested for using the 24-hour urine test include diabetes, urinary tract infection, heart failure, and kidney disease.

5. Pregnancy Tests

If a woman suspects that she is pregnant, she can carry out a urine test to confirm her suspicions. A pregnant woman’s urine contains the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone, which can be detected by a urine strip test. Most such tests have detailed instructions on how to go about the process, and many deliver results in seconds. However, be warned about the possibility of the test returning false results, especially if you are under medication or have taken too much water. It is always best to have your doctor confirm whether or not you are pregnant.

6. Drug Tests

Another common urine test is a drug test, typically done in learning institutions, by employers, and even law enforcement agencies. Drugs, like weed and heroin, remain in the body for a long time after consumption, hence can be detected through urine tests with ease. Weed, in particular, remains in the bloodstream for weeks after you smoke it.


Urine is one of the best specimens that doctors use to diagnose different diseases. Some of these diseases include heart failure, kidney disease, diabetes, and bacterial infections. It can also be used to test for pregnancy or drug use. A urine test is easily one of the best ways to tell how well your body is doing.

The Real Reasons Animals Are Used For Testing

A key focus of my blog is Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). In the biological sciences, animal models are frequently used to answer human health-related questions in numerous areas. Examples are Pharmacology, Toxicology and Virology. Some sectors are working to eliminate this usage altogether with in vitro and in silico methods, but until then, they are our most reliable scientific models. The following contributed post is entitled, The Real Reasons Animals Are Used For Testing.

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Animal testing is something which is a controversial subject. It has been long used to help companies test things such as medicine and cosmetics as well as food stuffs, and many of the animals who are tested on will go on to lead a healthy life.

Of course, there is a double edge to this sword, and when testing failed treatments and cosmetics on animals it can have detrimental consequences to all. Whether you are for or against animal testing in our world, we have to take a look at the uses it has in the world we live in.

If you have been often unsure about animal testing and what it is used for, these are some of the top reason why animals have been used to test products.

To advance understanding

Science provides the building blocks of the world and when we aim to discover and understand the world, science is key. It is a fact that experimentation allows us to understand science and the world, and in biology, animal testing is something that has allowed us to understand a myriad of things in the past. For example, with genetic testing using samples from different creatures, we have been able to discover the genomes of all living things, and create a roadmap of evolution. We have been able to use Jellyfish DNA to explore the secret of life, as well as using other clever biological mechanisms to heal and innovate. The reason we often test on animals such as mice and rabbits is that they have similar genomes to us, and their body anatomy is similar enough for us to utilise to learn from. Transgenic mice and other specially bred animals are at the forefront of scientific research.

To study disease

Disease is a scary thing, and all living creatures can fall privy to microorganisms and their dangers. Humans and animals share a lot of common illnesses, and as such it is common for animals to be used to study a disease and its symptoms, as well as to discover and test treatments to combat it. For example, rabbits suffer from atherosclerosis as we do, and testing of the disease has allowed humans to make huge advances in treatment. Using an infected animal as a model, we can test and study how a disease takes hold, and what mechanisms happen in the body. This allows us to develop treatments to save animals and humans alike.

To develop and test treatment

As we said above, one of the most prevalent uses for animals in the lab is to allow us to test treatments. By inducing an animal with a specific illness, we can begin to develop and test treatments to see if they have a positive effect. This is something which has always been incredibly important for medicine and it has had a huge impact on the ability we have to treat minor and major illness. Without the efforts of scientists in this way, we would not have treatments for Parkinson’s, Cancer, or Emphysema.